Fundamentals of Substation Equipment and Control Systems

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Course Overview

Upon completion of this course, you will understand the construction, operation, and control of power transformers, load tap changers, voltage regulators, power circuit breakers, circuit switchers, and capacitor banks.

You will also be familiar with protective relays, trip schematics and wiring diagrams, auxiliary equipment and systems, metalclad switchgear, substation automation and integration, batteries, and battery chargers.

Who Should Attend?

  • Substation design engineers and technicians
  • Industrial, utility, or plant engineers
  • Substation operations specialists
  • Power system dispatchers
  • Project managers

Course Outline

Substation Types and Purposes

  • Fundamentals of power system operation
  • Primary substation equipment

Power Transformers and Controls

  • Major components
  • Construction and operation
  • Connections and ratings
  • Fixed taps and LTCs

Introduction to Schematics and Wiring Diagrams

  • Control logic
  • Converting control schematics to wiring diagrams
  • Example transformer control and wiring diagrams

Voltage Regulators

  • Construction and operation
  • Ratings

Disconnect Switches

  • Types and applications
  • Manual and motor-operated switches; control schematics

Power Circuit Breakers

  • Purpose and types
  • Construction and operation
  • Schematics and wiring diagram examples

Circuit Switchers and Other Special Application Switches

  • Purpose and major components
  • Construction and operation
  • Schematics and wiring


  • Purpose and applications
  • Major components
  • Types and ratings
  • Construction and operation

Power Fuses

  • Types and applications
  • Operation

Instrument Transformers

  • Voltage and current transformers
  • Principles of operation
  • Burden, saturation, and accuracy
  • Ratings and connections

Protective Relay Systems

  • Purpose and types
  • DC trip and close schematics
  • AC voltage and current schematics
  • Wiring diagrams

Battery Systems

  • Purpose and ratings
  • Chargers and charging control systems

AC Station Power Systems

  • Station power requirements
  • Back-up supplies/sources


  • Purpose and functions
  • SCADA overview
  • RTUs and IEDs

Integrated/Automated Substation Control Reference Material

  • Integration/automation defined
  • Communication systems and interfaces

Capacitor Banks

  • Purpose
  • Construction and operation
  • Switching and protection control schemes

Metalclad Switchgear

  • Advantages and applications
  • Construction and operation
  • Protection and control

Wave Traps

  • Purpose and applications
  • Major components
  • Tuning and operation

Substation Commissioning

  • Acceptance testing equipment
  • Start up procedures
  • Energizing equipment
  • Substation and transmission line examples


David Herbst

David Herbst has over 30 years of experience in designing, installing, and testing electric utility relay protection and control systems. He currently works as Manager of Commissioning and Testing Services for Realtime Utility Engineers, Inc. in Madison, Wisconsin. Dave spent 21 years working for an investor-owned electric utility. His responsibilities included design, installation, and maintenance of relay protection systems, as well as supervision of engineers and technicians involved in system protection design and commissioning. Dave has extensive experience in protection system design and commissioning of substations and electrical systems from 480 volts through 345kV.

John Raksany

John A. Raksany, PE joined the Department of Engineering Professional Development at the University of Wisconsin–Madison as a program director in 1998. Previously a senior maintenance planning engineer for Alliant Utilities, he has 27 years of experience in power delivery system planning, protection and control, maintenance, and substation design.

Upcoming dates (1)

Jun. 9-17, 2021

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Program Director

John Raksany

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